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Vesuvius, Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Environs

Unit 2 Images:  Excavation History

1.  Overview of the Naples Bay area -- NASA Aster satellite -- Blue areas are densely populated.

2.  Prior earthquake recorded on an altar frieze from Pompeii

3.  Map of the ashfal from the Plinian phase of the 79 AD eruption

4a.  Mechanics of a pyroclastic flow

4b.  Herculaneum pyroclastic flows

5.  Bulwer-Lytton, who wrote The Last Days of Pompeii

6.  Pompeii in 19th century popular art

7.  Mark Twain's Innocents Abroad

8.  The Vesuvius funicular and its song

Pavaroti sings it at

9.  Pliny the Younger to Tacitus -- letters with eyewitness account of the 79 AD eruption

10.  Ancient looters in Pompeii left their traces

11.  More looters

12.  Domenico Fontana (ca. 1600) -- architect and engineer

13.  Fontana's aqueduct -- route and current excavations

14.  Fontana's aqueduct -- left traces as it cut through Pompeii

15.  King Charles of Bourbon of Naples -- collector of antiquities (later King Charles III of Spain)

16.  Karl Weber -- Excavation Director and his nemesis Alcubierre. Both worked for Charles

17.  Antichita di Ercolano published by the court of Charles iii -- seeˆ_di_Ercolano_Esposte

18.  Isis temple discovered

19.  Isis temple and "Egyptian styles" in Europe

20.  Mazois' Les Ruines de Pompei published

21.  Garibaldi appoints Dumas as excavations Director

22.  Fiorelli and his method of makeing plaster casts of 79 AD victims

23.  Maiuri -- Director for Mussolini and until the 1960s


Pompeii site Director Massimo Osanna (through 2020) implemented the Great Pompeii Project (2014 - 2020).

24x.  Osanna with newly excavated Lararium (household gods' shrine)

25.  Map -- current extent of excavated area of Pompeii

26.  The Great Pompeii Project:

27.  Dr. Osanna saw the project to its nominal conclusion (some work continues) and then became the director of all Italian National Museums.  After a search, which attracted 44 candidates, a new site director for Pompeii,  a German/Italian dual-national archeologist, Dr. Gabriel Zuchtriegel, was appointed in February 0f 2021.  Zuchtriegel had for several years been the site director at Paestum (three standing Greek temples), and, before that, he had been Osanna's assistant and protege in Pompeii.  We don't know the exact politics of Zuchtriegel's appointment, but two of the four members of the Pompeii Archeological Park Board of Directors resigned in protest at his appointment.  Zuchtriegel is known for his expertise in remote sensing, drone surveys, satelite sensing, ground penetrating radar, electrical resistance mapping, microwave tomography and other modern technologies used in archeogeophysics.

28.  Areas worked by the Great Pompei Project include "The Wedge" and its surroundings in Area V of Pompeii,  Stabilization of the city walls and towers, and stabilization of the edges of previous excavations, which in some cases involved digging back as many as ten additional meters into structures along city streets on which only building facades had previously been exposed.

Discoveries in the newly excavated areas
Areas V new excavations