Commissioned by Urban IV, but first stone laid by Nicholas IV on Nov 13, 1290. It commemorates Miracle at Bolsena in 1263 -- Communion wafer bleeds on the altar cloth (il Corporale) proving the dogma of transubstantiation to a German Monk.
Started in Romanesque, but switched to Gothic style. Technically, the Duomo is incomplete and still under construction.
Lorenzo Maitani followed by his son Vitale -- 1310-1331
Andrea Pisano -- 1331-45
Nino Pisano -- 1349-?
Andrea di Cecco da Sienna -- 1356-59
Andrea Orcagna -- 1359-?
Michaele Sammicheli 1509-25
(Gaps indicate halts in construction or unknown masters)
Bas-Reliefs on lower pilasters: by L. Maitani, V, Maitani, Nicholas and Meo Muti (Creation, Abraham and David, Life of Christ, Last Judgement, Hell and Paradise.)
Main Door Lunette: Madonna by Andrea Pisano, bronze Angels and symbols of Evangelists by L. Maitani.
Rose window by Orcagni.
Mosaics: modern reproductions -- unknown.
Main doors -- bronze -- Emilio Grecco (1963-65)
Main Door Lunette -- Madonna by Andrea Pisano,
Bronze angels and symbols if evangelists by L. Maitani
South doors -- Porta Postieri (unknown)
North doors -- Porta di Canonica -- Fresco by Andrea di Giovanni
Porta del Corporale -- three statues by Andrea Pisano
Fresco near font -- Madonna by Gentile di Fabriano (1426)
East Bay -- baroque statues including Pieta of Ippolito Scalza (1574)
Chapel of the Corporale --
Painted panel -- Madonna dei Raccomandati by Lippo Memmi (1339)
Tabernacle by Niccolo da Sienna incorporates Reliquary if the Corporale by Ugolino di Vieri da Sienna (1331-41)
Choir -- frescoes by Ugolino di Viera -- carved and inlaid stalls by Giovanni Ammannati (et al.) da Sienna (1331-41) -- east window by Giovanni di Bonino (1325-34)
Chapel of the Madonna di San Brizio
Completed by Luca Signorelli (1499-1504): "End of Days" Fresco Cycle: Sermon by Antichrist (Signorelli painted himself and Fra Angellico Among the listeners) -- Judgement Day -- Resurrection of the Body -- The Good Ushered into Heaven -- The Evil Driven into Hell. Portrait medallions of poets: Homer, Dante, Ovid, Lucan, Empedocles. Signorelli's Pieta
The 13th century altar painting (unknown painter) is the Madonna of San Brizio