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Unit 8:  a  Pre-Socratic Philosophers
              b  PanHellenic Games

Pre-Socratic Philosophers

Greek philosophy is always divided by Socrates who was born just as the Persian Wars were ending; Greek philosophy is pre-Socratic, Socratic, or post-Socratic. It follow, then, that philosophers of the Archaic Period were pre-Socratic.

Pre-Socratic philosophy is Greek ancient philosophy before Socrates (and includes schools contemporary to Socrates that were not influenced by him[1]). In Classical antiquity, the Presocratic philosophers were called physiologoi (Greek: φυσιόλογοι; in English, physical or natural philosophers).[2] Aristotle called them physikoi ("physicists", after physis, "nature") because they sought natural explanations for phenomena, as opposed to the earlier theologoi (theologians), whose philosophical basis was supernatural.[3] Diogenes Laërtius divides the physiologoi into two groups, Ionian and Italiote, led by Anaximander and Pythagoras, respectively.[4]


1.  Presocratic Philosophy, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007
2.  William Keith Chambers Guthrie, The Presocratic Tradition from Parmenides to Democritus, p. 13, ISBN 0-317-66577-4.
3.  John Freely, Before Galileo: The Birth of Modern Science in Medieval Europe (2012)
4.  Franco Orsucci, Changing Mind: Transitions in Natural and Artificial Environments, p. 14, ISBN 981-238-027-2.
Socrates (470/469 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy.  He is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes.  Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple', Plato".

For more on Socrates, see

The pre-Socratics (obviously not an exhaustive list)
C.f., and
        Also follow Internet links on those pages.
(Click on a philosopher's name to go to his entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) a peer reviewed academic resource.  There are no her entries, because, if any
women were
thinking deep thoughts, the Archaic Greeks would never consider recording their work.) Thales of Melitis Anaximander Anaximenes Pythagoras Heraclitus of Ephesus Xenophanes of Colophon Empedocles of Akagras Leucippus and Democritus A graphic representation of pre-Socratic philosophers and their schools showing connections, commonalities, and areas of disapproval.
A timeline of Westerh Ancient Philosophers.


b  Pan-Hellenic Games

Pan Hellenic Games started with the first foot race outside the Temple of Zeus in Olympia, which, according to tradition, occurred in 776 BC, and developed into a multi-sport multi-venue rotation during the Archaic period. Venues Stadiums
For information on the ancient Pan-Hellenic Games, see