Gruppo Archeologico Romano

Participate!   ---   Contact Ms. Anna Taggiasco, Gruppo Archeologico English Program, 06-39737703, for full program and fee schedule.

Rome Through the Centuries Autumn 2000

Background material keyed to topics to be covered in the Rome Through the Centuries course of the English Programme of the GAR

Nicole Fuget        Wednesdays 10 AM      October 4 - December 13

Ms. Nicole Fuget (center) with Rome Through the Centuries participants at rooftop level in Ostia Antica.

Book Recommendation: Pilgrimage: A Chronicle of Christianity Through the Churches of Rome,  by June Hager, provides much useful information on Churches included in the Fall 2000 Rome Through the Centuries itinerary.  It is Available in some local bookstores and through and Pilgrimage Pilgrimage

Internet sites of general use to participants:
Ancient Rome -- Topographical Dictionary
Archeology Links
Architecture Links

Art History:

Art History Webmasters ASSOCIATION
Gateway to Art History
Index of artists and architects
OCAIW: Orazio Centaro's Art Images Web -- sculpture, architecture, etc.
Vassari: Lives
World Wide Arts Resources
The Catholic Encyclopedia
Church/Religions Links
History Source books
Indice Monumenti Antichi e Aree Archeologiche -- Roma
Jubilee Links
Literature and eTexts
Maecenas: Images of Ancient Greece and Rome
Medieval History Links
Mythology Links
Palaces of Rome - by Italian Tourist Web Guide
POPES -- Catholic Encyclopedia

Roman Churches:

Rome Churches -- RomeTours
Rome Churches -- RomeGuide
Basilicas and Churches - Italian Culture Net Links
Vitruvius on Architecture -- LacusCurtius
Western Civilization Links
October 4:   The Roman Family

M.P.:  GAR, Via degli Scipione, 30/A

Children in the Roman World -- Lacus Curtius
Classics Department: Daily Roman Life
Family, Daily life, Women -- OZ
Housing the Roman Family
Life in Antique Rome
Roman Family --
Roman Life
Rome: Social History --
Rome -- Women (Halsall)
Women: Rome --

Family Law:

Roman Family Law in Smith's Dictionary
Adultery -- Smith's Dictionary
Concubina -- Smith's Dictionary
Divorce -- Smith's Dictionary
Dowry -- Smith's Dictionary
Impubes -- Smith's Dictionary
Infans -- Smith's Dictionary
Ingenui -- Smith's Dictionary
Marriage Law -- Smith's Dictionary
Patria Potestas -- Smith's Dictionary
Property: Donationes inter Virum et Uxorem -- Smith's Dictionary
Property: Donatio propter Nuptias -- Smith's Dictionary
Roman Marriage - Matrimonium -- Smith's Dictionary
Tutor -- Smith's Dictionary

October 11: Roman History seen through its Statues -- Palazzo Massimo alle Terme (fee)

M.P.:  Largo di Villa Peretti, entrance to the Museum

Imperial Reliefs
Description of museum (Italian)
Museo Nazionale Romano delle Terme F13b
Palazzo Massimo alle Terme -- Koskimies
Palazzo Massimo, Cambridge U. item -- scroll down

October 18:  Romulus and Remus and the Foundation of Rome

M.P.:  Entrance to the Museum of the Baths of Diocletion -- Via Luigi Einaudi (fee)

The recentlly reopened Museum is hosting its second exhibition, this one on Romulous and Remus and the founding of Rome.  Starting with the legend of Aeneas' departure from Troy, the exhibition  moves through the various phases of the precursors, establishment, and development of early Rome.
Aeneas and the Foundation of Rome
Legend of Aeneas and the Foundation of Rome
The Aeneid by Virgil
Chronology of Roman History: Romulus & Remus
Encyclopedia Mythica -- Romulus
Encyclopedia Mythica -- Quirinus
Encyclopedia Mythica -- Rhea Silvia
The home page of the Encyclopedia Mythica
Romulus by Plutarch -- The Internet Classics Archive
Other Internet Classics Archive titles (441 searchable works of classical literature) can be accessed at: The Internet Classics Archive
Hersilia:  If Romulus was the Father of Rome, his wife, Hersilia (one of the raped Sabine women) was, of course, the Mother of Rome.  (Rhea Silvia, the mother of Romulus and Remus, often gets the title of Mother of Rome, but that says more about the psychology of ancient Romans than we need to get into.)  According to legend Romulus and Hersilia had two children, Prima, and Aollius

from the John Dryden translation of "Romulus" by Plutarch:

Now the signal for their falling on was to be whenever he rose and gathered up his robe and threw it over his body; his men stood all ready armed, with their eyes intent upon him, and when the sign was given, drawing their swords and falling on with a great shout they ravished away the daughters of the Sabines, they themselves flying without any let or hindrance. They say there were but thirty taken, and from them the Curiae or Fraternities were named; but Valerius Antias says five hundred and twenty-seven, Juba, six hundred and eighty-three virgins: which was indeed the greatest excuse Romulus could allege, namely, that they had taken no married woman, save one only, Hersilia by name, and her too unknowingly; which showed that they did not commit this rape wantonly, but with a design purely of forming alliance with their neighbours by the greatest and surest bonds. This Hersilia some say Hostilius married, a most eminent man among the Romans; others, Romulus himself, and that she bore two children to him,- a daughter, by reason of primogeniture called Prima, and one only son, whom, from the great concourse of citizens to him at that time, he called Aollius,  but after ages Abillius. But Zenodotus the Troezenian, in giving this account, is contradicted by many.

(The following site visit was cancelled and replaced by the Romulus and Remus session above:

Rich and poor in Rome -- the Insula, Piazza Aracoeli, foot of the steps of the church

Insulae, or Roman apartment buildings, contained multiple apartments together with shops, workshops, and storage areas.  Unlike some well known insulae in Pompeii, Roman and Ostian insulae regularly ran to multiple storeys, and, while Pompeiian insulae usually covered a whole city block, those in Rome and Ostia usually had a smaller "footprint" -- there were several per block.

Archeological remains are not necessarily indicative of the capacity  and occupancy of individual insulae:  written sources clearly indicate that the lower floors of stone, brick, and concrete (which are what we see at the archeological sites) were routinely surmounted by several storeys of wooden structures which landlords added to increase occupancy (and therefore the landlord's revenue).   Written sources also indicate that spaces (as opposed to apartments) were rented out and that more prosperous tenants might interconnect adjacent spaces while poorer folk crowded into one.  More desirable and larger apartments were on the lower storeys for several reasons:  insulae did not have elevators (although the technology existed);  upper apartments were much hotter during the summer; and fire danger was much greater on the shabbily built wooden upper floors.   Neighborhood (location!) was important in determining rents.

The regionary catalogues of the fourth century list the number of insulae in each region as well as the number of detached houses (domus).  The very high number of insulae (44,300) suggests that almost all Romans lived in such apartment dwellings.  No norm of size, either for the insula or for the individual apartment is known, so it is impossible to determine how many people might have lived in each insula.

Roman Housing Types
Insula of Ara Coeli
Roman Insula -- Koskimies
Capitoline from the North -- Koskimies
The Apartment at Ostia
Ostia Topo dictionary - Building types)

October 25: Amphitheatrum Flavium:  Colosseum from A to Z,  20 centuries of history

M.P.:  Entrance to the Colosseum (fee)

Amphitheatrum Flavium -- Platner
The Roman Amphitheater -- Smith's Dictionary
Amphitheatre -- Britannica
Colosseum -- Britannica
Colosseum -- Great Buildings
Colosseum or Flavian Amphitheatre
Images of the Colosseum, Rome, 72-80 CE.

November 1:  no class -- Fiera di Tutti Santi

Saints are pretty much a Catholic thing, but Tutti Santi is a national holiday in Italy, so, even if you're not a Catholic, it doesn't hurt to know what is being celebrated.

Catholic Encyclopedia: ALL SAINTS' DAY gives information on the feast day

Saints (McGill U) on Saint's in general

Catholic Online Saints Index (angels too) is just what the name says, with links to rather simplistic and credulous bio bites.  The Catholic Encyclopedia gives more detailed information and reflects the scepticism of the post-Enlightenment Church about the histories of the saints.

Patron Saints and  Patron Saints Index Patronage Index can give you a clue on who protects what and whom.

Find out about the newly appointed patron Saint of the Internet at Patron Saint for Web.

All Hallows' Eve -- The day before Tutti Santi -- Halloween as it is becoming popular in Italy and recipes for the traditional "Ossa dei Morti", "bones of the dead" sweets from different sections of Italy: Ossa dei Morti.

November 8:  Nero's Domus Aurea (fee)

M.P.:  Via del Domus Aurea, entrance to the Domus

The Golden House of Nero (Latin - Domus Aurea) was constructed by Nero between AD 65 and 68, after the great fire (after which the emperor used to expropriate an area of more than 200 acres [81 hectares] of land in the center of Rome).  Nero had already planned and begun a palace, the Domus Transitoria, that was to link the existing buildings on the Palatine Hill with the Gardens of Maecenas and other imperial properties on the Esquiline and adjoining hills. To these he now added a large part of the Caelian and Oppian hills and the valley between them and the Palatine. This whole area was laid out as a park with porticoes, pavilions, baths, and fountains, and in the center an artificial lake was made that under the emperor Vespasian was drained to provide a site for the Colosseum. On the slopes of the Velia at the east end of the Forum a grandiose colonnaded approach and vestibule were constructed, within which stood a colossal gilded bronze statue of Nero. The domestic wing of the palace stood on the slopes of the Oppian Hill facing south across the lake.

Little has survived of the palace. Because the expropriations involved in its building were deeply resented, Nero's successors hastened to put large parts of the palace to public use or to construct other buildings on the land. Of the sumptuous wall paintings and stucco decorations described by Pliny, all that was visible by the 16th century to inspire the grotesques of Raphael and his followers were the wall paintings in the grotte, or caverns, of the palace.

The Golden House is historically important because it expressed the aesthetic of monumental architecture that was to characterize the imperial style of Roman architecture under Domitian, Trajan, and Hadrian.

Domus Aurea - Severus and Celer (architecture)
Domus Aurea -- UTexas
Domus Aurea -- Comune Roma
Domus Aurea -- RAI
Plan, Domus Aurea -- Athena Review
Domus Aurea -- Maecenas -- Images
Domus Aurea -- -- very good images
Nero -
Domus Aurea (Scroll down) -- Platner and Ashby
Domus Transitoria (Scroll down) -- Platner and Ashby

November 15:  Renovated Musei Capitolini:  Palazzo Nuovo (fee)

M.P.:  Piazza del Campidoglio,  museum entrance
The Musei were designed by Michelangelo along with the Campidoglio square. The collections are based on the original donation of bronze sculptures from Pope Sixtus VI in 1471. There have, of course, been numerous acquisitions since then, and the collections are still growing, constantly adding the best
archeological finds in Italy.

There are actually a number of different Museum spaces, but you get into all of them for the price of one ticket. The sections are:

1. The Palazzo Nuovo which houses a collection of Roman sculptures including the restored original equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius which formerly stood in the center of the Campidoglio square (certainly the most famous equestrian statue in the world).

2. The Palazzo dei Conservatori which houses an even larger collection of ancient sculpture, the sumptuously decorated apartments of the "Conservatori", and the Capitoline Picture Gallery (Pinacoteca). Constantine's giant head is once again available for touching in the courtyard.

3. The Palazzo Cafferelli directly behind and connected on all levels to the Palazzo dei Conservatori, which holds still more antiquities.

4. A tunnel under Michelangelo's grand Campidoglio square which connects to the ancient Roman Tabularium (archives) which is directly below the Rome city government building at the back of the square.

The view over the Forum from the Tabularium is among the best you will find anywhere -- equivalent to what you can see from the top of the Farnese gardens on the Palatine hill, but from the other end of the Forum. You can get into the tunnel and to the Tabularium from either the Palazzo Nuova or the Palazzo dei Conservatori.  (The Tunnel/Tabularium has brand new wheelchair lifts and the Curator said on June 8 that similar lifts have been ordered for the whole museum complex. There are elevators to some areas, but some of them would be too small for a wheelchair.)

On the top level of the Palazzo Cafferelli is an exhibition on the restoration of the famous bronze statue of the "Capitoline Wolf" which suckled Romulous and Remus.  The original statue is on display along with lots of other Capitoline Wolf stuff and exhibits of how the statue was restored. Behind the Wolf Exhibition is a terrace with a nice cafeteria/restaurant (many sun umbrellas and some indoor seating, spotless rest rooms here and several other places around the Museums) and a great view of Rome toward the River -- you can't see the Forum from this side. If you look down on the back side of the terrace you can see the ongoing excavations at the base of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus that stood on the south-western peak of the Capitoline Hill.

There are two bookstores, one in the Palazzo Nuova and another in the Palazzo dei Conservatori. Both offer normal Rome Museum bookstore items, heavy on what is displayed at the Capitoline Museums. You can get into either bookstore from the Campidoglio square, without buying a ticket to the Museums.

Museum tickets and AudioGiudes are available at separate cashiers within both bookstores. Tickets cost 15,000 Italian Lira even though the brochure that comes with the ticket says IL 12,000. The ticket is for all of the Museum spaces, although you'd be really hard pressed to see everything on just one visit -- a minimum of three visits would be about right if you just want to see everything. If you want to contemplate or study what you are seeing, it would take many more. The Capitoline Museums are not as big as the Ufizzi in Florence or the Vatican Museums, but there is a lot more than anyone
can absorb, perhaps in a lifetime.

The AudioGuide is available in several languages including English and Italian for an additional IL 7,000. The Audioguide itinerary, which lasts at least two hours and fifteen minutes, just skims you through the major pieces, but it is still worth the price. It starts in a long corridor at the back of the bookstore in the Palazzo Nuova, takes you through the Palazzo Nuova, then the tunnel and Tabularium, and then back up into and through the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the opposite side of the square.  Neither the Pinacoteca
nor the Capitoline Wolf exhibit are included in the AudioGuide, but there are good descriptive signs in English and Italian throughout both of those exhibit areas.

There are numerous Internet links:

All of the major works are listed separately on the Internet at various art sites: Look in your guidebooks, find the name of the piece you want to view, and enter it in your Internet search engine. For example, this link gets you about ninety Internet pages that refer to the Capitoline Venus through the AltaVista search engine, and this one finds you 100+ pages that refer to the Marble Fawn, including several that link you to sites about Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel of the same name which uses the statue as its central image.

Marcus Aurelius Equestrian Statue on the Campidoglio -- The origninal is in the Palazzo Nuova.  The one in the center of the Campidoglio is a 1990's copy.

In the Palazzo dei Conservatori is the Capitoline Picture Galery.

November 22:  The Ladies of the Forum

M.P.:  Entrance to the Forum Romanum at Largo Romulo e Remo (opposite the south end of Via Cavour)

Cloacina, the Sewer Goddes, (an aspect of Venus, i.e., Venus Cloacina) is arguably the first "Lady of the Forum" and from the antiseptic standpoint the most important:

The Shrine of Cloacina
Tarpeia, who betrayed Rome to its Sabine enemies (for gold, according to Livy, for love, according to Propertius), could be considered a Lady of the Forum, by virtue of the depiction of her story on the Basilica Aemilia.

The "triade capitolina" included Juno and Minerva in addition to Jupiter.  There was a temple to the Jupiter Optimus Maximus and the Triad on the Capitoline, looming over the Forum

The Vestals were, of course, the most famous of the Forum Ladies.  The temple of Vesta, where they preserved the Vestal fire, and their residence was in the forum.
Vestal Virgins Vestal Virgins Text and links

Pictures from Maecenas --
Temple of Vesta and Vestals' House in the Forum

The Temple of Antoninus and Faustina was originally dedicated only to Faustina by her husband Antoninus -- his name and dedication was chiseled in later.
Temple of Antoninus and Faustina -- Pictures from Maecenas
Temple of Antoninus and Faustina -- Description of the building, Platner and Ashby

(No great surprize -- the Hypogeum has still not been stabilized and, once again, will not be open this semester.  The following site visit has thereore been cancelland and is replaced with "The Ladies of the Forum" listed immediately above.

Via Salaria Vetus, Via Salaria:  The Hypogeum in Via Livenza and the tombs in Via Salaria, Via Livenza, 4

AURELIAN'S WALLS - scroll down to "second diversion"
The Aurelian Walls web site, of which this is a small part,  is a guide to walking tours around the northern, eastern, and western Aurelian Walls (southern is still to be posted) and around the walls of the Vatican, with a few diversions to sites near the walls, such as the Hypogeum.

Hypogeum of Via Livenza
A good description of the Hypogeum and a link to the rest of the award winning Subterranean Rome Internet site

Tombs of Sts. Chrysanthus and Daria
One of many Catholic Encyclopedia entries on burials along Via Salaria.  Use any Search engine and enter +tomb* +"via salaria"

Mausoleo di Lucilio Peto
Another tomb, outside the Aurelian walls)

November 29:  Our Ancestors -- Museo Etnografico Luigi Pigorini (fee)

M.P.:  EUR, Piazza Marconi

MUSEO PREISTORICO ED ETNOGRAFICO LUIGI PIGORINI. The museum, one of the most important of its kind in the world, is derived from the collection formed in the late 17th century by Father Anastasius Kircher in the Collegio dei Gesuiti.  From 1871 onwards it was greatly enlarged by Luigi Pigorini, and in 1876 it became the Museo Preistorico del Nuovo Regno d'ltalia.  After 1913 the protohistoric objects went to Villa Giulia, classical and Christian antiquities to the Museo Nazionale Romano, and medieval exhibits to Palazzo di Venezia.

The Museo Preistorico is arranged geographically to indicate the way civilisation developed regionally through the Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages.  Most of the exhibits are Italian, of the prehistoric period.  They include material from all parts of the peninsula, so that a complete idea may be obtained of the growth of its civilisation and of the commercial and artistic influences of the East and of the countries bordering on the Aegean.  The descriptive labels, maps and diagrams are very informative.  The most interesting exhibits include: material from cemeteries in the Lazio area; finds of the Italian School in Crete; curious Sardinian statuettes of priests and warriors in bronze; a tomb from Golasecca, representative of the western civilisation of Northern Italy.    The objects found in the cemeteries of western and southern Etruria (Vetulonia, Tarquinia, Vulci, Veio, etc.) are particularly interesting; among them are well-tombs (1Oth - 8th century BC), with ossuaries resembling those of Villanova, closed with a flat lid or shaped like a house, and trench-tombs (8th and 7th centuries BC) showing the influence of Greekcommerce, especially on pottery.

The Ethnographical Collection includes material from the Americas, Africa, and Oceania collected by Lamberto Loria, Vittorio Bottego, Guido Boggiani, and Enrico Hillyer Giglioli.  There is a pre-Columbian archaeological collection from Mexico and the Andes, and artefacts made by the Inuits of the Arctic Circle.  The African collection includes material from Angola and Zaire.   Much of the material which belonged to Loria was collected by him in New Guinea.

Pigorini Museo
Museo nazionale preistorico-etnografico "L. Pigorini"


Eur - Home -- Ente EUR
EUR History -- Ente EUR
Plans and drawings
Rome EUR

December 6:  S. Stefano Rotondo, Outside the Servian Walls -- On the model of Constantinian churches in Jerusalem

M.P.:  Via di S. Stefano Rotondo, 7

Santo Stefano Rotondo is one of Rome's earliest Christian churches,  and its shape is similar to that of the rotunda of Constantine's Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, which some authorities say was its model.  (Others say that a round church that was on the site now occupied by the Dome of the Rock on Temple Mount was the model.  What is clear is that several round churches were built in Jerusalem prior to the construction of S. Stefano.)  It was built between 468 and 483.  Twenty-two columns support the inner area.  The drum in the center is 72 feet high and every bit as wide.  The 22 windows high on the walls illuminate the interior.  Gruesome frescoes by Niccolo Pomarancio were added in the 16th century showing the purported martyrdom of many saints.  Check out the 7th century mosaic in the first chapel on the left, Christ with San Primo and San Feliciano.
Church of S. Stefano Rotondo: Bill Thayer's very good site (with links to other sites)
The Frescoes (in Italian)
S. Stefano Rotondo -- Koskimies prints and photos
Catholic Encyclopedia: ST. STEPHEN

December 13:  Roman supurb indifference to the changes in the world -- S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura

M.P.:  Piazzale del Verano, 3, in front of the Church

The basilica of SAN LORENZO FUORI LE MURA is one of the seven pilgrimage churches of Rome and consists of two churches placed end to end.   The complex is located outside the eastern wall of Rome near the Campo Verano cemetery.  San Lorenzo was the only church in Rome to suffer serious damage during the Second World War, when it was partly destroyed in an air raid on 19 July 1943: the facade and the south wall were rebuilt in 1949.

St. Lorenzo was, according to legend, slowly burned to death on a gridiron, in 258 A.D. under the Emperor Valerianus, and was buried in the Christian cemetery/catacomb of St Cyriaca on August 4th of that year.   (The Catholic Encyclopedia acknowledges "the details concerning the martyrdom of St. Lawrence and his activity before his death cannot claim any credibility".)  Tradition says that , during the reign of Pope Sylvester (313-335), Constantine built a church on the site of Lorenzo's burial and that access to the catacomb and tomb was through the Church.   Between 579 and 590, Pope Pelagius II built a new church beside Constantine's 4th century church of San Lorenzo and thereafter there wer several additions.  The ciborium (sometimes called a baldacchino), which was signed by stonemasons Johannes, Petrus, Angelus, and Saxo (Sasso) -- sons of master mason Paolo Romano, was installed on the high altar in 1148.   Between 1187 and 1191, Clement III added the cloister, and in 1191 or 1192 Cardinal Cencio Savelli, Later Pope Honorius II, remodeled and decorated the tomb.   In 1216 Honorius II demolished the apse of the 6th century church and built onto it another church, placing the entrance at the opposite end.   Honorius' new basilica serves as a nave for Pelagius's old one which functions as a chancel with the tomb of St. Lawrence in a crypt chapel beneath.

The Romanesque campanile dates from the 12th century.  The reconstructed 13th century narthex of six antique lonic columns has a carved cornice and a mosaic frieze.  Inside are two unusual tombs, a tablet (1948) commemorating repairs ordered by Pius XII after war damage, and a monument by Giacomo Manzu to the statesman Alcide De Gasperi, the Christian Democrat who dominated Italian politics between 1943 and 1953; the 13th century frescoes depict the lives of Saints Laurence and Stephen.

The interior of the cojoined basilicas is essentially 13th century and earlier.  There is no transept.  In the nave (Honorius's church) twenty-two diverse Ionic columns (6 cipolino marble, the others colored granites) support an architrave in the nave, and the floor is paved with a 12th century Cosmatesque mosaic.  Near the entrance is the tomb of Cardinal Fieschi, a large Roman sarcophagus converted to its present use in 1256: it was rebuilt from the original fragments after the bombardment.  Near the end of the nave on the right is a Cosmatesque ambone and the twisted stem of a paschal candlestick.  The episcopal throne dates from the 13th century.

Inside the triumphal arch connecting the two churches is a 6th century mosaic of Christ enthroned (with Saints Paul, Stephen, and Hipolytus [left] and Peter and Lorenzo [right])and with Pelagius offering the church, which was reset during the Byzantine revival. The raised chancel incorporates the 6th century church (except for its apse which was demolishedand replaced by the joining arch) which is on a slightly different axis . The Corinthian columns in the chancel are of precious pavonazzo marble (a creamy white to beige, with dark, often purplish, streaks, quarried in the Pietrasanto region) and support an entablature of 2nd and 3rd century fragments and an arcaded gallery.

The lower level, cloister and catacombs can only be visited by special permission from the monastery.  The level of the earliest basilica has some of the original pillars, and in its narthex is the mausoleum of Pius IX (died 1878), rebuilt by Cattaneo in 1881 and decorated by Lodovico Seitz.  Clement III's cloister (1187-91) is decorated by an undistinguished modern fountain.  Off the cloister are the extensive Catacombs of St Cyriaca where the body of St Laurence is said to have been placed affer his death in 258.

The churches were skilfully restored in 1864-70 by Virginio Vespignani,  and the facade, narthex, and south wall of the church, damaged in World War II, were repaired in 1949 using original materials as much as possible.


To the right of the church is the entrance to the huge municipal cemetery called Campo Verano, on the site of the estate of the Emperor Lucius Verus.  It was designed by Giuseppe Valadier in 1807-12, with a church and quadriporticus by Virginio Vespignani.  The four colossal allegorical figures at the entrance date from 1878. Among the tombs is that of Goffredo Mameli (died 1849), the soldier-poet (first avenue to the left).  On the high ground beside Via Tiburtina is a memorial of the battle of Mentana (1867).  (Mentana was the battle where Garibaldi's last attempt to take Rome was defeated by French and Papal forces.  Among other participants in the battle was Madame Helena Petrovna Blavatsky.)  In the zone of the new plots is a First World War memorial, by Raffaele de Vico.

S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura
S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura-- Romeartlover
Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Lawrence
Seven Churches of the Pilgrimage
Goffredo Mameli -

mmdtkw dean - wukitsch