Historical Events

Sorted by nation

Germans in general:

Ca. 230-200 BC: Bastarns and Sciri moves to the Black Sea and settles on the north slope of the Carpatian Mountains.

58 BC: The Suebi under Ariovistus were defeated by Julius Caesar in Alsace.

56 BC: The Usipetes and Tencteri are driven back into Germania by Julius Caesar.

15 BC: Tiberius Julius Caesar and Drusus conquers Raetia and Noricum.

12-9 BC: Drusus subdues the Batavians, Frisians and Cherusci.

9 BC: Drusus dies at Albis (Elbe).

8-6 BC: Tiberius Julius Caesar occupies Germania up to Albis.

4-6 AD: Tiberius Julius Caesar subdues the Langobards on the far side of Albis with support from the Cherusci. Tiberius also makes war against the Marcomanni.

9 AD: Roman troups under Varus disintegrated by cherusci led by Arminius in the Teutoburger forest.

14-16 AD: Germanicus performs a costly and failed campaign into Germania.

37-41 AD: Gaius Caesar Germanicus (Caligula) performs failed (According to Tacitus "feigned") campaigns against Germans.

ca 65 AD: Batavian rebellion in Rhenus delta suppressed by Vespasianus.

83 AD: Domitianus Caesar performs a campain (punishment?) against Chatti on the north side of Mons Taunus.

171 AD: Chatti begin to attack the Roman Empire.

257 AD: An undefined assembly of Germans marches through Gallia Transalpina (France) via Hispania, down to Mauretania (Morocco).

260 AD: Superior Rhen-Rhaetica limes abandoned.

269 AD: Goths, Heruli, Pecuni and Gepids attacks simultaneously (coordinated?) the northeast border of the Roman Empire.

ca 409 AD: Suebi settle in northwestern Iberia as foederati.

451 AD: The battle at the Catalaunian Fields, where Stilicho defeats Attila. According to Jordanes, the sides were as follows: Aetius with Roman troups, aided by Visigoths, Franks, Sarmatians, Armoricians, Burgundians, Saxons, Riparians, Olibrones and some more, Attila with his Huns, aided by Ostrogoths, Gepids, and many others.

476 AD: The child emperor Romulus Augustulus, last emperor of the West Roman Empire, deposed by the Scirian Magister Militium Odoacer, who is proclaimed king by his troups. In medieval, early modern time considered to be the time when the West Roman Empire ends.

531 AD: The Thuringian kingdom under Herminafrid conquered by the Franks with Saxon auxiliary troups.

575 AD: The Visigoths invades the Suebian kingdom.

Marcomanni and Allemani:

8-3 BC: The Marcomanni king Marobudus erects his reign inspired by the organization model of the Roman Empire.

19 AD: The Marcomanni reign of Marobudus (inspired by Roman military organization) ends, and the Marcomannians go back to the Germanic tribe organization.

167-175 AD: Marcus Aurelius Caesar fights the Marcomanni and conquers a diminutive land area between Danuvius and Rhenus.

178-180 AD: Marcus Aurelius again fights the Marcomanni, this time without any gains.

213 AD: Allemanni attacks Roman Empire.

235-238 AD: Emperor Maximus Thrax defeats the Allemanni.

260-274 AD: Germans (Allemanni, Saxons and Franks) invades Gallia Transalpina (area of France) causing anarchy and barbarian rule until Emperor Aurelianus reconquers it.

268 AD: Invading Allemanni are defeated somewhere in Noricum by Claudius II.

271 AD: The Allemanni are defeated at Pavia (Gallia Cisalpina - i.e. Lombardia).

375 AD: Valentinianus I defeats the Allemanni.


ca 400 AD: The Burgunds founds a first nation under king Gundahar.

436 AD: The first Burgundian reign is crushed by Huns, arranged by the Roman Magister Militium Aëtius.

443 AD: The Burgunds are admitted to found a foederati in the area of Saône and Rhône.

480 AD: The Roman Commander Gundebaud of the Burgundians becomes king for the Burgundian foederati.

516 AD: Gundebaud dies.

534 AD: The Burgundian Nation is destroyed by the Franks.

A late Middle Age Burgund nation emerges in connection with the split-up of Franconia in 561 AD. It ceases 613 AD when again Franconia is united under Chlothar II.

Two Middle Age Burgund entities emerges 880 - Upper and Lower Burgund - around Rhône. They merged later, and further on they split again into Provence and Arelat.

A later still Burgund entity emerges 1363 as a result of the French Hundred Year War. It is situated further north than Upper Burgund, and is politically associated to Netherlands. It is split up between France and The German-Roman Empire in 1477.

Cimbres, Teutons and Ambrons:

ca 120 BC: Cimbres, Teutons and Ambrons settle in Teutoburgium, Pannonia (current day Austria/Hungary).

113 BC: Cimbres, Teutons and Ambrons defeat a Roman army in Noreia, Raetia.

109 BC: once again in Gallia.

105 BC: and again at Arausio in Gallia.

102 BC: The Teutons and Ambrons are defeated by a Roman host at Aqua Sextiae, near Massilia (Marseille).

101 BC: The Cimbres are defeated at Vercellae in Gallia Cisalpina (Northern Italian plain).

13-9 BC: Pannonians (whoever are referred to, i don't know for sure whether this is a Cimbroteutonian remnant) are subdued by Agrippa.

6-9 AD: Pannonian uprise, settled down by emperor Tiberius Julius Caesar.


12-9 BC: Drusus subdues Batavi, Frisians and Cherusci.

9 BC: Drusus dies at Albis (Elbe).

4-6 AD: Tiberius subdues the Langobards on the eastern side of Albis, aided by the Cherusci.

9 AD: A Roman army is disintegrated by a Cheruscian uprise under the chief's son Arminius in the Teutoburger wood.


257 AD: The Franks, an alliance of a diversity of German tribes, start to make raids into the Roman Empire.

260-274: Germans (among others Allemanni, Saxons and Franks) push into Gallia Transalpina and causes anarchy and barbarian rule until Aurelianus retakes Gallia 274.

357: The Franks, who have pushed into Belgica, are defeated by Constantius II in the battle at Argentorarum (Strasbourg).

482: Chlodoweg crowned Franconian king.

486: The Franks, under Chlodoweg, crushes the Roman local governor Syagrius reign between Somme and Loire.

ca 496: The Allemanni are defeated. The survivors join the Ostrogoths under Theoderic.

507: The Franks conquers the Gallian part of the Visigothic Kingdom, Aquitania, except a narrow strip at the Mediterranean Sea.

511: Chlodoweg dies in Lutetia (Paris).

531: The Thuringian Kingdom under king Herminafrid is conquered by the aid of Saxonian troups.

532-534: The Franks, under Chlothar I, Childebert I  and Theodebert I, conquers the Burgundian Kingdom.

534: The Burgundian Army is defeated in the battle at Autun.

535: The Ostrogoths recede their remaining territory in Allemannia.

539: Theodebert defeats the Ostrogoths and Byzantines, but doesn't succeed to occupy Northern Italy, which was the plan.

558: Chlothar I elected king.

558-561: Chlothar I succeeds to unite Franconia.

561: Chlothar I dies.

613: Chlothar II crowned king.

Thereafter the Franconian history continues on and on until France of today...


454: The Gepids, under Ardaric, destroys a coalition army of Huns and allies at river Nedao in Pannonia, and thereby the Hunnian reign ends. The Gepidian reign is elected in Dacia (current day Transylvania)

ca 565 The Gepidian Nation is destroyed by the Langobards

Goths (any):

ca 100 AD: The Goths settle in the Vistula (Wisla) area in current day Poland.

end of the 100:s: The Goths migrate towards Scythia (current day Ukraine).

beginning of the 200:s: The Goths settle finally in the Scythia area, inclusive in the Dacia area (current day Romania). The Bastarni are assimilated with the Goths.

236: First Gothic attacks on the Roman Empire.

238-244: Gordianus III defeats the Persians at Resaina (Syria) aided by Gothic auxillary troups.

251: Decius Caesar fall under campaign against Gothic raiding parties under Kniwa in northern Balkan.

254: A coalition of Goths, Quadi and Sarmati attacks the Empire.

264: A Gothic raid upon Cappadocia (Asia Minor), where the grandparents of later Bishop Wulfila are captured.

269: Goths battle Romans, under Claudius II, at the battle at Naissus. The Romans wins according to History, but...

270: The Romans recede Dacia, and Goths occupy it.

end of 200:s: The Visigoths and Ostrogoths constitute separate groups. Read more under Visigoths and Ostrogoths.

375: Valentinianus I performs campaigns against Goths

406: A Germanic coalition under the Goth Radagaisus raids into Italia, but they are beaten down.

500:s: The Gothic Codex Argenteus is written in Italia, possibly In Ravenna by the Bokareis Wiljarith.

unknown: Codex Argenteus reaches the monastery Werden (current day Essen, Germany).

1253: The Flemmish Franciscan monk Willem van Ruysbroek reports about 'Goti' on Crimea who spoke a Germanic language.

end of 1500:s: The Bohemian (Czech) king and German-Roman Kaiser Rudolf II, acquires Codex Argenteus from the monastery to his Castle at Hradzin.

1563: The Flemmish diplomat Oghier Ghiselin van Busbecq writes and publishes a dictionary of more than 80 Crimean Gothic words as related by a Gothic-speaking Greek.

1648: The Swedes takes Codex Argenteus as war loot from Hradzin.

1650: The Dutch Isaac Vossius acquires Codex Argenteus from Queen Kristina of Sweden, as payment for an unpaid dept.

1654: Codex Argenteus is freighted to the Netherlands.

1662: The Swedish Count Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie buys Codex Argenteus and presents it to Uppsala University, where it currently resides.

ca 1750: The last Gothic Remnant on Crimea is deported by Tsaritsa Catarina the Great of Russia, and thereby are lost.


ca 565: The Langobards destroys the Gepidian Reign

ca 568: The Langobards enter the Po Plain, Nothern Italy

572: The Langobards conquer Pavia.

584: Authari crowned Langobardian king.

590: Authari dies, Agilulf made king.

after 590: Agilulf makes peace with the Franks and armistice with the Byzantines.

615: Agilulf dies.

638: Rothari elected Langobardian king.

643: Rothari authors Edictus Rothari, the Langobardian Law.

650: The Langobards concludes the conquest of whole Italia, excluding Ravenna, South Italia and Sicilia.

652: Rothari deceases. His successors become catholics.

661: Grimoald I crowned king, the County Benevent becomes annexed to Langobardia.

after 661: Franks, Byzantines, Avars and Slavs are successfully held back.

671: Grimoald dies, Langobardia are split up in feodal fashion.

712-744: Liutprand tries to reunite Langobardia by subduing the Counties Spoleto, Benevent, and conquer Ravenna and Rome. He doesn't succeed entirely.

749: Aistulf elected king.

751: Aistulf conquers Ravenna from Byzantium.

756: Aistulf deceases.

756: Count Desiderus of Toscana crowned king.

773: The Franks attack.

774: The Franks conquer the Northern Italian part of Langobardia. The County Benevent in South Italy remains Langobardian.

774-887: Langobardia is increasingly split up in small states, as the Franks loses their grip.

888-962: Many proponents for kingship fights without anyone getting full power.

888: Markcount Berengar of Friuli is crowned king.

891: Count Vido of Spoleto coerces the pope to erect him emperor. He claims heirship from the Langobardian Kingdom.

892: Count Lambert of Spoleto coerces the pope to erect him emperor. He claims heirship from the Langobardian Kingdom. (No typo, same as above!)

894: Count Vido dies. Arnulf of Kärnten is acknowledged king.

896: Arnulf is crowned emperor.

after 896: Arnulf abandons Langobardia and returns to Bayuvaria.

898: Count Lambert dies.

899: Berengar is defeated by the Magyars (Hungarians) at Brenta, and must pay revenue.

900: Louis of Provence crowned to king in Pavia.

901: Louis elected emperor in Rome.

905: Louis is defeated and blinded by Berengar, so he returns to Provence.

915: Berengar is elected emperor.

918: The Arabs attack Reggio.


258: The Ostrogoths occupy Crimea, where some of them remain until the end of the 18th century.

375: The Ostrogothic reign in Scythia (current day Ukraine) is destroyed by the Huns. The Ostrogothic king Ermanaric commits suicide. The Ostrogoths are subdued by Attila.

454: The Ostrogoths take part at the losing side in the battle at Nedao where Gepids under Ardaric crushes the last Hun coalition. The Ostrogoths become souvereign.

456: The Ostrogoths settle in Pannonia.

471: Theoderic Amali is elected king over a large fraction of the Ostrogoths.

473: The Ostrogoths raids in southern Balkan.

481: Theoderic Amalis worst competitor, Theoredic Strabo dies in a hunting accident.

484: Theoderic is elected Magister Militium (general) and Patricius over Italy by the East-Roman emperor Zeno.

488: The Ostrogoths breaks up for Italia in order to defeat king Odoacer of a Scirian dominated German coalition.

493: The Ostrogoths gain control over Italia, and Theoderic becomes king over Italia as a foederati under East-Rome.

ca 496: The Allemanni are defeated. The remnants of the Allemanni join the Ostrogothic nation.

in the 500:s: The Codex Argenteus is written.

507: Papal schism in Rome, where Theoderic is forced to chose a candidate, a converted pagan, Symmachus. Theoderic got the blame for the bad quality of this Symmachus.

511: Theoderic becomes king also for Visigothia, as a regency for his under-aged grandson Amalarik, son of the deceased Alarik II over Visigothia.

524: The philosopher Boëthius and his father-in-law Symmachus are executed for treason, presumably being innocent.

526: Theoderic dies in Ravenna. Theoderic's daughter Amalasuinta assumes regency for her under-aged son Athalaric. The Visigoths become independent.

534: Athalaric dies. Amalasuinta marries her cousin Theodahad, who is elected coruler.

535: Theodahad murders Amalasuinta. Ostrogothia is attacked by the Byzantines under Belisarius and Narses.

536: Teodahad is murdered. Vitiges is elected king over the Ostrogoths.

537-538: Rome, which is occupied by the Byzantines, is besieged by the Ostrogoths.

540: Vitiges is captured by Belisarius after the siege of Ravenna, and he recedes the kingship. Ostrogothia is now almost defeated. A Gothic/Italian uprise occurs in northern Italia.

540: Hildebad is elected king, but is murderet after less than a year.

541-552: Totila becomes Ostrogothian king, and reconquers successively almost whole Italia.

551: Jordanes authors "De Origines Actibusque Getarum", that describes the Gothic history according to their own traditions. The still available text took much information from the now lost Gothic History by Theoderics minister Cassiodorus.

552: Totila falls against the Byzantines under Narses at Tadinae.

552: Teja elected Ostrogothic king, but falls after a few months at the last major battle at Mons Lactarius.

561: The last Gothic rebellion is put down.

ca 1100: The Gothic language ceases to be spoken ... as much as many believe


409-411: The Vandals, Suebi and Alans enter the Pyrenaean Peninsula, and split it up in four territories.

418: The Silingian Vandals and Alani are crushed by Visigoths.

429: The Hasdingian Vandals leave Iberia for Africa.

438: The Suebian king Hermeneric abdicates and is succeeded by Rechila.

439: Mérida conquered by the Suebi.

441: Sevilla conquered.

448: Rechila succeeded by Rechiarius.

455-456: The Suebian kingdom collapses from Visigothic attacks, after near complete conquest of the Pyrenean Peninsula. The remaining Suebian areas in Galicia are ruled by competing warlords.

ca 550: Suebia consolidates to a kingdom once again.

ca 560: The Suebian kings convert to Catholicism.

575: The Visigoths conquers the Suebian State in Iberia.


406: A giant host of Barbarians, among others Vandals (Silingi and Hasdingi), Quadi, Suebi and Alans pass the Roman border and raids heavily in Gallia.

409-411: The Vandals, Suebi and Alans enter the Pyrenaean Peninsula, and split it up in four territories.

416-418: The Silingian Vandals and the Alans are defeated by the Visigothic king Wallia. The Hasdingian Vandals remain in Andalusia, whereto the remnants of the losing warriors join.

428: Geiseric elected Vandal king.

429: The Vandals cross the Mediterranean Sea to occupy Africa (i.e. in an area centered on the current day Tunisia).

430: The Vandals capture Hippo Regius.

439: The Vandals capture Carthago.

442: Rome formally recedes Africa, and Vandalia is acknowledged a souvereign state.

455-467: The Vandals raid Rome (455), Sardinia and Corsica (456), Calabria (461), East Rome (467).

474: All Vandal occupations are acknowledged by emperor Zeno (East Rome).

477: Geiseric deceases.

535: The Vandal Reign is finally crushed by the East Roman general Belisarius.


70BC: Julius Caesar establishes the north-western border at the Rhein

100AD: Vandals inhabit the land between Elbe and Vistula (northern Germany)

160AD: Vandals inhabit Selesia

270AD: Vandals cross the Rhein

330AD: Constantine grants the Vandals land in Pannonia (Hungary)

360AD: the Vandals convert to Christianity

406AD: Vandals cross the Rhein and occupy Spain

407AD: Roman general Stilicho (of Vandal descent) stops the Vandals on their way to Italy

419AD: Gunderic unifies the Vandals of northern (Alans) Spain and southern (Vandals) Spain

421AD: Vandals defeat the Roman army and expand in Spain

428AD: Gunderic dies and is succeeded by his brother Gaiseric

429AD: Vandals, led by Gaiseric, invade northern Africa and are recognized as an independent kingdom

439AD: Gaiseric conquers Carthage

455AD: Gaiseric's Vandals sack Rome

468AD: A Roman expedition against Gaiseric's Vandals is defeated and Rome recognizes Vandal rule over the Italian islands

477AD: Gaiseric dies

534AD: the Roman general Belisarius recaptures Africa from the vandals


340: Bishop Wulfila begins to mission among Visigoths.

347: Wulfila, and adherents, are forced to leave the Gothic area north of Danuvius (Donau/Duna/Dunarea), for settlement in Moesia (current day Bulgaria) as Gothi Minores.

376: After the Hun catastrophe, a large host of Visigoths, under the kings Alaviv and Athalaric, gets permission to settle in Moesia, by the East Roman emperor Valens. Because of provision hardships, they soon rebel.

378: Emperor Valens is killed at Hadrianapolis, in a campaign to put down the rebellion.

379: The Visigoths gain permission from emperor Theodosius I to settle in Moesia and Thracia.

382: Theodosius I concludes a new peace and settlement treaty with the Visigoths.

383: Bishop Wulfila dies.

395: Alaric elected Visigothic king.

397-401: Visigoths, under Alaric, raids Balkan, but are convinced to leave Balkan by electing Alaric Magister Militium over Illyricum (current day Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Serbia).

401-410:Visigoths, under Alaric, raids the Italian Peninsula.

402: Alaric is pushed back by Stilicho at Pollenza ...

403: and at Verona.

408: Rome besieged by the Visigoth after the death of Stilicho. Alaric ends the siege after receiving a huge ransom.

409: The Visigoths besieges the West Roman emperor Honorius in Ravenna without gain.

410: The Visigoths captures and loots Rome.

410: Alaric dies in Cosenza, southern Italia, when planning to cross the Mediterranean Sea for Africa.

411: Alaric's brother-in-law, Athaulf succeeds Alaric.

415: Athaulf dies, and his brother Wallia, succeeds him.

418: Wallia founds the Tolosan Visigothic Reign in Gallia.

418: Theodorid (or Theoderic I) is elected Visigothic king.

451: The battle at the Catalaunian Fields, where a Gothic-Roman dominated coalition under Aëtius pushes back a Hun-dominated attack force under Attila. The Visigothic king Theodorid falls under the battle.

453: Theodorids son Theoderic (II) elected Visigothic king.

466: Theoderic deceases, and is succeeded by Euric.

470: Euric authors Codex Euricianus.

ca 475: The Visigothic foederati treaty is redrawn, and Visigothia becomes formally a souvereign state.

484: Eurik deceases, and is succeeded by Alaric II.

507: The Visigoths are defeated by the Franks under Chlodoweg.

after 507: The Visigoths lose almost all territory in Gallia, but compensates themselves by expanding into Iberia (Spain).

551: Byzantium conquers a southern land strip in Iberia.

568: Leowigild elected Visigothic king. He makes Toledo Visigothic capital.

after 568: The Visigoths reconquers the Byzantine land in Iberia.

575: The Visigoths conquers the Suebian State in Iberia.

579: While Leowigild is fighting in the north, his son Hermenegild rebels. He also take side for the Catholics in the Catholic-Arian fight for dominance.

ca 582: Hermenegild's forces are defeated, and Hermenegild is exiled and killed.

586: Leowigild deceases. His successor is Reccared I.

587: Reccared converts to Catholicism, and after him the Gothic nobility.

589: The Arian church in Visigothia is dissolved.

601: Reccared dies.

633: The Visigoths introduces elections for king.

649: Reccesuint elected king.

ca 654: Reccesuint authors Lex Visigothorum, valid for both Goths and Romans.

672: Reccesuint deceases, and is succeeded by Wamba. The stories claim him to be coerced into it.

680: Wamba is dethroned and coerced into monastery. He is succeeded by Erwig.

694: Erwig dies, and his son-in-law Egica, succeeds him.

702: Egica deceases.

711: Arabs under the Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad, crush the Visigothic Reign under Roderic. They conquer successively all Visigothic territory.

721: The last Visigothic residence in Narbonne falls to the Arabs.

732: The Franks, under Charles Martell, defeats the Arabs at Poitiers, and conquers the Arab held land strip in Gallia. The governor Abd ar-Rahman falls during the battle.


200BC: Mao-tun unites the Huns (Xiongnu, Hsiung-nu) in Central Asia around Lake Bajkal and southeastern Mongolia

176BC: the Hsiung-nu attack eastern China (the Tocharians)

140BC: Han emperor Wu-ti conducts campaigns against the Hsiung-nu

121BC: China defeats the Hsiung-nu

51 BC: the Hsiung-nu split into two hordes, with the eastern (southern) horde subject to China

50 BC: the western Huns expand to the Volga

48 AD: the Hsiung-nu empire is defeated by the Han and dissolves

337AD: Constantine dies and the Roman empire is divided in eastern (Costantinople) and western (Rome) empire

350AD: Hunnic (Xiongnu, approximate pronunciation hyon-yu) invasion of South-eastern Europe

376AD: Huns, led by Uldin, reach the Black Sea and the Danube, conquering the eastern Goths

395AD: the Huns raid Armenia

408AD: Uldin crosses the Danube but is defeated by Rome

408AD: the Roman patrician Aetius is taken prisoner by the Huns

412AD: the new Hun leader Donatus is murdered by the Romans and is succeeded by Charato (Karaton), who unifies all Western Huns

425AD: Huns are hired by a western Roman general (Aetius) to fight in Italy during a political crisis

430AD: the new Hun leader Rugida (Rua) signs a peace treaty with the eastern Roman empire (annual salary in return for peace)

433AD: Rugida (Rua) signs a treaty with the western Roman empire that surrenders Pannonia to the Huns in exchange for military help

433AD: Aetius becomes the de-facto ruler of the western Roman empire

434AD: Rugida (Rua) dies and is succeeded by Attila (a friend of Aetius) and his brother Bleda

435AD: Aetius employs Huns to fight Vandals and Franks

436AD: Aetius and the Huns destroy the Burgundians

439AD: Attila helps Aetius

441AD: the Huns raid eastern Roman outposts along the Danube

441AD: the Huns sign a peace treaty with the eastern Roman empire

445AD: by murdering his brother, Attila becomes sole leader of the Huns, who are centered in Hungary (Pannonia)

447AD: the Huns and Valamer's Goths attack the eastern Roman empire in the Balkans and Attila reaches the walls of Constantinople

449AD: Attila signs a new treaty with the eastern Roman empire

450AD: the new emperor Marcian reneges on the Hun-Roman treaty

451AD: Huns travel from Pannonia and attack Gaul but are defeated by Aetius and the Visigoths

452AD: Huns cross the Alps but renounce attacking Italy for fear of the plague and Attila concludes peace with Pope Leo

453AD: Attila dies of a nosebleed one his last wedding night.

454AD: Goths expel Huns from Pannonia

454AD: Aetius is murdered by his emperor

461AD: the Huns besiege Paris

469AD: the Hun king Dengizik dies and the Huns disappear


Islam emerged in the 7th century in Saudi Arabia. By 800 AD it was the dominant faith of the Mediterranean world and the Middles East.

561-750 ... marked the rule of the Umayyad Dynasty (a clan of merchants from Mecca) in its beginning form.

570 ... Muhammad is born in the Arabic town of Mecca.

589 ... Arabs, Khazars, and Turks invade Persia, but are defeated.

610 ... the vision of Muhammad, Islam's prophet.

622 ... Muhammad flees to Medina and the Islamic calendar begins at 1 A.H.

624 ... Mohammad marries Aisha, one of his favorite of his ten wives.

625 ... Muhammad begins dictating the Koran to a scribe, since he can not read or write.

627 ... The Medinian Jewish community was destroyed for assisting the Meccan leader, Abu Sufyan, to take control of the Arabian peninsula.

630 ... Mohammed captures Mecca, and sets out the principles of Islam.

632 ... Muhammad dies

.............. Abu Bakr is then named the 1st caliph. Islam starts to spread rapidly through conquest and invasion.

632-633 ... The Muslims lose and regain control of the Arabian Peninsula.

638 ... The Muslims capture Jerusalem (the Holy City of the Christians) and soon begin their conquest of Egypt.

643-702 ... Islamic conquest of North Africa.

656-661 ... Ali Caliph of Islam is in power after the assassination of Othman.

661 ... The Omayyad Dynasty is formally founded by Muawiya, who is the caliph until 680. The Dynasty lasts until 750.

670-677 ... marks the first Muslim siege of Constantinople.

673 ... Arabs besiege Constantinople (until 678) without success.

674 ... The Islamic Empire now reaches as far as Pakistan, and spreads through North Africa.

674 ... The Arabs eastward conquest reaches the river Indus, in modern Pakistan.

685 ... Aldalmalik, Caliph of Islam (to 705) sets up a new administration in the Arab empire.

700 ... The Arabs capture Tunis - almost exterminating Christianity in North Africa.

705 ... Muslim Arabs had conquered all of North Africa.

711 ... The Moors (Moroccan Muslims) invade Spain, but the Muslim conquest attempts are halted in 732, by Frankish King, Charles Martel.

718 ... The Moors hold most of the Spanish peninsula. The Muslims start to invade India.

750 ... The Abbasid Dynasty overthrows the Umayyads and founds Naghdad, in what is now called Iraq.

786 ... Harun al-Rashid becomes caliph of Byzantium.

900 ... The tales of One Thousand and One Nights are begun.

916 ... An Arab scholar, Al-Masudi, travels through Africa to Mozambique.

930 ... Cordoba, in Spain, becomes a center of Muslim learning.

971 ... The world's first universities are established in Muslim cities, such as Cairo.

1005 ... The Holy Sepulcher Church, in Jerusalem is ruined.

1019 ... the founder of the Islamic Druze sect dies.

1031 ... a Moorish kingdom is formed in Andulusia, Spain.

1036 ... Al-Munstansir heads the Fatimid Dynasty in Egypt.

1055 ... Battering rams are used by Spanish soldiers to take the city of Coibra from the Muslims.

1099 ... Crusaders take back their Holt City of Jerusalem killing 40,000 people.

1131 ... Fulk of Anjou, France, is declared King of Jerusalem.

1144 ... Edessa, in Mesopotamia, falls to the Muslims.

1161 ... the first Turkish baths are built by Kilij Arslan II.

1171 ... Mulsim leader Saladin becomes sultan of Egypt.

1182 ... Ibn-Munqibh, an Arab soldier, writes his memoirs.

1187 ... Saladin defeats the Crusaders and recaptures Jerusalem.

1193 ... Saladin's death sparks war among his successors.

1197 ... The Arabs destroy all Buddhist monastic centers in Nalanda, India.

1244 ... Jerusalem is lost to Muslim forces from Egypt.

1258 ... The Mongols kill Islamic leader, Caliph al-Musta'sim, his body is rolled into a carpet, and he is kicked and stomped to death by soldiers and horses.

1262 ... Crusaders recover the Spanish city of Cadiz from the 500-year rule of the Moors.

1344 ... Amda Tseyson, ruler of Ethiopia, Africa; dies a hero, having constantly repelled the Muslim forces and therby increases his empire.

1453 ... Ottoman Turk, Muhammad II, conquers Constantinople, Orthodox Catholic city.

1462 ... Vlad the Impaler is defeated by the Ottman Sultan Muhammad II, after killing 20,000 Turks along the Danube River.