"The Dark Ages" is the name that Renaissance humanists gave to the period that started with the "Fall" of Rome and ended with their own arrival.
Medieval Rome --Introduction and the Constantinian legacy.
"Medieval" really just means "middle period" Dark Ages or Darkened ages
In general, "Darkness" was pejoratively applied by snooty Renaissance folks -- much like "pre-Raphaelites" -- not liking what came in between.
This was particularly true of Italians who thought that what came in between was German and thus Barbarian.
Early and late Medieval
Different dates in different place -- like all historical period labels.In "Western Civ", "medieval" is usually applied only to Europe, but historians of other areas also use the term.Although the course is about Rome, we will talk about other places if needed.
Even in Europe, period names don't always mean the same thing.
Historians usually pick their own parameters
For our purposes, we will try to drop the term "dark ages" but no penalty for forgetting.
We will, however, use Medieval, early and late, for Rome.
We'll use Early Medieval to mean the time between Gregory the Great (born about 540, Pope from 590 until 604) and ca. 1000.
Late Medieval will mean 1000 through the debatable beginning of the Renaissance -- we'll decide later when that is.
Before starting on the Medieval period,
we'll go into some background:
Barbarians -- anyone non-Roman -- "your barbarian is my cousin"
Benedict and early monasticism
He wrote a biography of Benedict
Despite what it sounds like, this isn't a linear history course
There are timelines and an abbreviated history, but we will concentrate on
trends and controlling factors (some of which are people) rather than on events
We won't always go in chronological order
Benedict, for example, is in the
century before Gregory but will come after him in the
Francis and Dominic, will be discussed with Benedict even though
they're late Medieval. Even
Ignatius, who was counter-Reformation, will rate a
The "Donation of Constantine"
Extent of the Empire -- map exercise: from Augustus until 1500
Orphan maps? (Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe)
Structures: Church basilicas and rounds
Tituli -- home churches to which someone held title
Basilica of Maxentius/Constantine
Largest built, curile basilica
Tomb dinners -- an ancient
Mediterranean tradition: Dining/assembly area in
front of tombs
Grand triclinia: banquet halls for large numbers of guests
Exposing tombs -- ambulatoria around tombs
Medieval Churches of Rome
Old St. Peter's
Not oldest, but eventually assumed greatest importance.
Funerary chapel expanded into huge basilica
Good example of a semi-round ambulatory cut around a tomb
Perhaps built by Constantine (or Constantius)
Eventually demolished because it
would have fallen -- but lasted more than 1000 yrs.
"Mother of all churches"
Converted grand tricliniun
Not a tomb church
Medieval Baptistery still standing
"Constantine's bathtub" (Rienzo connection)
Leo 3's Triclinium Mosaic from Palace
Disastrous Palace fires
Renaissance/baroque redecoration of the church
4th Century Titulus Aemilianae built by Pope Miltiades (311-14)
Restored by Pope Honorius 625-638) and by Pope Hadrian 772-95
Basilica built by Pope Leo 4 (847-55).
Sacked by the Norman, Robert Guiscard, in 1048.
Rebuilt on a smaller scale by Pope Paschal 2 (1099-1118).
Monastery and cloister added in the 12th and 13th centuries, held by Benedictines until the 16th.
Fortress guarding the Lateran (1246, Innocent 4) and haven for Popes during conflict with the Hohehstaufen
Camaldolese monks got it in 1521 and 40 years later the Augustinians got it.
Became the Dominican HQ in 1218 (overtaken by S. Maria Sopra Minerva in 1370.)
Last home of Dominic, later was home of Thomas Aquinas.
Wooden doors are pre-450, perhaps the first doors of the church.
Windows are translucent selenite.
Restored in first half of 20th century -- renaissance and baroque additions removed.
Medieval cloister is attached.
Additional courtyard with "Dominic's" orange tree.
Funerary rotundae without fronting basilicae?
Not a church until 1254 -- Pope Alexander 4
Vault mosaic, with portrait of Costanza, is 4th century
Costanza's porphyry sarcophagus -- original in the Vatican
S. Maria ad Martyres -- Pantheon
Temple closed in 5th century and given by Emperor Phocas to Pope Boniface 4.
Boniface consecrated it as S. Maria ad Martyres before 609
(in that year he proclaimed "All Saints Day" in the church.)
In 663, Eastern Emperor Constans 2 stole the bronze roof tiles.
Gregory 3 reclad the roof with lead in 735.
Used as a fortress and later as a poultry market during Avignon Captivity (1309-77)
Restored to use as a church after the Captivity -- in use since then.
and following pages
A purpose built round church -- probably modeled directly after the Byzantine church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Same size as the Jerusalem Holy Sepulchre rotunda.
First church consecrated by Pope Simplicius (468-83), perhaps in 460.
Perhaps financed by the Verlarian family who had Jerusalem connections -- not a titulus.
Built on the site of a Mithraeum within the Castra Peregrinorum (a military barracks for foreign troops -- training for foreign officers).
Decorated by Pope John 1 (523-26) and Pope Felix 4 (526-30).
Colonnades altered and transverse arches added by Innocent 2 (1130-1143).
Ss. Giovanno e Paulo -- 2-3 century titulus, 4th century church, restored mid-5th, restored early 12th after Norman sacking
S. Pudenza (Pudenziana) 390 -- original but badly restored apse mosaic is the earliest of its type in Rome
S. Maria Maggiore
S. Maria della Neve -- Aug 4-5 358
Ss. Cosmas and Damian in Foro 527
S. Marco in Piazza Venezia -- ca 800
S. Cecilia in Trastevere -- early titulus Ceacilia, 5th century church replaced in 9th
S. Prassede (Praxedes, sister of Pudenza) 5th century church replaced in 822
S. Clemente 1100s (Earlier church destroyed by Guiscard)
S. Maria del Popolo 1227
S. Lorenzo fuori le Mure
And hundreds more: